Which of the following is a by-product of an adaptation?

Which of the following is a by-product of an adaptation?
A)The belly button is a by-product of an umbilical cord.
B)The umbilical cord is a by-product of a belly button.
C)The toes are a byproduct of humans walking upright.
D)Humans walking upright is a by-product of the toes.

Joe is suffering from a severe anxiety disorder.His psychiatrist prescribes a medication that has been found in many research studies to help reduce anxiety.Joe takes the medication, but his anxiety

Joe is suffering from a severe anxiety disorder.His psychiatrist prescribes a medication that has been found in many research studies to help reduce anxiety.Joe takes the medication, but his anxiety level does not improve at all.Since the anxiety medication did not work, Joe concludes that his psychiatrist must be wrong and he must be suffering from some other disorder.The problem with Joe’s conclusion is that he is failing to consider the
A)patient uniformity myth.
B)internal validity of the research studies.
C)lack of clinical significance of many research findings.
D)external validity of the prior research.

In well-designed research studies, medications that enhance serotonin functioning have been found to help patients recover from episodes of depression.Given the realities of the patient uniformity myth, it would be

In well-designed research studies, medications that enhance serotonin functioning have been found to help patients recover from episodes of depression.Given the realities of the patient uniformity myth, it would be a mistake to conclude that
A)most depressed patients will be helped substantially by these medications.
B)all depressed patients will be helped by these medications.
C)research can help us determine which treatments should be used for specific disorders.
D)medication can be an appropriate treatment for a psychological disorder.